Viking (spacecraft), first space probe to survive landing
on the surface of the planet Mars. Launched by the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA), Viking was the most extensive and complex mission ever to explore
Mars and included several experiments designed to test for life on Mars.
The Viking mission used two identical spacecraft to orbit and land
on Mars. NASA launched Viking 1 on August 20, 1975, and Viking 2 on September 9, 1975.
Each Viking spacecraft consisted of an orbiter, carrying a variety of imaging and remote
sensing instruments to study Mars from orbit, and a lander, designed to operate on and
intensively study the planet's surface. It took each spacecraft almost a year to reach
Mars-Viking 1 went into orbit around Mars on June 19, 1976, and Viking 2 on August 7,
1976. Viking 1 landed on Mars on July 20, 1976, on the western slope of Chryse Planitia.
Viking 2 set down September 3, 1976, at Utopia Planitia, 6460 km (4014 mi) from Viking 1.
The Viking spacecraft continued to function long past their planned 90-day mission. The
Viking 2 orbiter ran out of fuel for its attitude-control system (the system that keeps
the craft's solar panels pointed at the sun) and shut down on July 25, 1978; Viking's
controllers on the earth were able to keep the Viking 1 orbiter functioning until August
7, 1980. The last data from the Viking 2 lander were received on the earth on April 11,
1980, and the Viking 1 lander made its final transmission on November 11, 1982.
David S Percy
An increasing number of people are becoming aware of what has been described as the 'face'
on Mars (Fig 1). I am going to show that there is an apparent connection between the
complex where the face is to be found on Cydonia, Mars - located at 41°N latitude - (Fig
2) and Avebury, just north of Stonehenge, England.
Figure 3 is a
close up of the Cydonia crater and the 'wall', the latter some two miles long and
remarkably straight. (The 'face' is about a mile long, incidentally). The 'wall' clearly
sits on top of the ejecta blanket. In other words, the existence of the wall must post
date the laying down of the blanket. On the crater rim there is what appears to be a
three-sided or tetrahedral pyramid.
South of the crater is a mound, which has an apparent
anti-clockwise spiral ascending it with a pyramidal structure at on its peak. This spiral
mound is a mile in diameter and is approximately 500 feet high.
Due west of this mound is a cluster of what seem to be
mainly pyramidal structures, one of which has obviously been damaged. This group is
referred to as the 'city'.
Located to the south east of the city is a large
five-sided pyramid (known as the D & M pyramid, Fig 4). As Erol Torun, a
geomorphologist at the American Defense Mapping Agency has stressed, an object with five
straight sides cannot be formed, or at any rate cannot be maintained, by the action of
wind and weather. For the force that is sharpening one face will at the same time be
causing any existing opposite straight sides or edges to erode.
Back in 1991 it occurred to me that Avebury circle, (Fig 5) with its
earthen rampart and ditch, is a depiction of the Cydonia Crater on Mars, suggesting that
Silbury Hill (Fig 6)along
with other features in the areamight be a 'mirror' representation of the key
features of Cydonia.
Working with the large scale UK Ordnance Survey map of
the region, I then carefully measured the two sets of items in question and found them to
be stunningly proportionate. That is to say, when the Cydonia mound-and-crater complex is
reduced by a ratio of approximately 14:1, i.e. fourteen miles in Cydonia equals one mile
at Avebury, it fits exactly on Avebury/Silbury. (Figs 7 and 8).
Avebury circle, for its part, is 'the mightiest in size
and grandeur of all stone circles', of a 'magnificent complexity' and measuring a quarter
of a mile across. Today a village nestles comfortably within its circumference. One writer
comments that if Stonehenge is thought of as a church, then Avebury is a cathedral.
Avebury circle consists principally of an outermost earth
rampart, with an inner ditch whence the earth for the rampart was dug. About four million
cubic feet of material was excavated in order to construct this enclosure. Circles of
standing stones then formed further inner rings which were added at a later date.
Now let us compare the spiral mound on Mars with Silbury Hill in England.
Silbury Hill, I should stress, is not a burial mound, and the entire purpose and
significance of the Silbury/Avebury complex remains, at present, a complete mystery.
Nine million cubic feet of material was shifted to build
Silbury Hill, the task has been estimated to have taken have taken 700 people 10 years.
Interestingly, ancient Britons used to dance up the hill to a maypole on the topin a
I had already noted a small mark on the Ordnance map of
Avebury rampart (Fig 9) exactly where the tetrahedral pyramid occurs on the crater rim in
Cydonia. This mark was located above a gap in the Avebury rampart, just as the Mars
pyramid is above a gap in the Cydonia rim. It is the only mound indicated on the Avebury
rampart by the Ordnance surveyors and is clearly an analogue of the tetrahedron located in
the corresponding spot on Mar.
David Myers and I surveyed the Avebury pyramid on the rim of the rampart in December 1991.
This has, obviously, been considerably eroded over a period of nearly 5,000 years, and
must once have been a still more impressive feature. The tumulus is indeed tetrahedral in
structure but not regular, with two long sides and one short, so that it projects almost
lozenge-shaped in one direction. These very same features also appear to be duplicated by
the Cydonia rim pyramid.
As William Neil MA an archaeologist has pointed out recently, the Cydonia crater is a
'Causewayed Enclosure' and Avebury is a colossal 'Causewayed Enclosure'. Causewayed
enclosures predate the stone circles and were in place at Stonehenge and Avebury before
the stones were erected.
So the tetrahedral pyramid on the Avebury rampart, north of a gap (a road actually)
mirrored by the tetrahedral pyramid on the Cydonia rim, north of a gap (Fig 3)surely
sets the final seal of proof, one would like to say the miraculous seal of proof, on a
case which was nevertheless already proven without it.
We must stress again the impossibility, first, of mound plus crater rim in Cydonia and
mound plus earth rampart at Avebury having by chance the same relative size, and being the
same relative distance from each other.
It is also interesting to note in Figure 10 that the four roads at Avebury all form
tangents with the most significant features of the Cydonia complex as well as the Avebury
landscape. The roads tangent (pass to the side of) the south of the spiral mound/Silbury
Hill, to the southern rim of the Cydonia crater/Avebury circle, the south-east corner of
the five-sided pyramid and to the north-east corner of the location of the 'city'.
It appears that tangents are strongly implied both on Cydonia and in the Avebury mirror.
And interestingly, the lines cross at the northern tangent of the Beckhampton roundabout
The following details calculated by archaeocryptographer Carl Munck indicate that the
'face' on Mars was positioned by intelligence (Fig 11):
The angles of a tetrahedron, 720° x 2 = 1440 multiplied by Pi (p) the universal constant
extends to 4523.893421, thereby encoding 41° 11 10.03080581" which is the
precise latitude of the 'face' on Mars.
This can be verified by 41 x11 x 10.03080581 = 4523.893421.
We could deduce from these findings that at some time in the past there has been physical
and/or mental communication between Mars and Earth.
NASA went to Mars on behalf of us all to look for life. In responding to the images of
certain Cydonia features, is it not it regrettable that the agency appears to ignore, and
has attempted to debunk, evidence that strongly indicates the work of intelligent life?
So to conclude, it already seems established beyond reasonable doubt that Mars must once
have been inhabited by sentient beings. But even more dauntingly, it is also now
absolutely clear that people on Earth 'knew' about that circumstance five thousand years
ago, and perhaps even earlier. The second discovery of course reinforces the first.
Or rather, taken together, the two sets of data form a
totally unshakeable case.
Mars images: NASA/Carlotto.
Maps: Crown Copyright