I wish to put in the RECORD the secret treaty of Verona of
November 22, 1822, showing what this ancient conflict is between
the rule of the few and the rule of the many.
I wish to call the attention of the Senate to this treaty because
it is the threat of this treaty which was the basis of the Monroe
doctrine. It throws a
powerful white light upon the conflict between monarchial government and
government by the people. The
Holy Alliance under the influence of Metternich, the Premier of Austria,
in 1822, issued this remarkable secret document :
Diplomatic Code, 1778 - 1884,
vol. 2 ;
Elliott, p. 179.]
representative government is
sovereignty of the
engage mutually in
princes ; and
which this treaty
treaty, the high
I ask to have printed in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD this secret
treaty, because I think it ought to be called now to the attention of the
people of the United States and of the world.
This evidence of the conflict between the rule of the few verses
popular government should be emphasized on the minds of the people of the
United States, that the conflict now waging throughout the world may be
more clearly understood, for after all said the great pending war springs
from the weakness and frailty of government by the few, where human error
is far more probable than the error of the many where aggressive war is
only permitted upon the authorizing vote of those whose lives are
jeopardized in the trenches of modern war.
Mr. President, I should like to have the senator state whether in
that treaty there was not a coalition formed between the powerful
countries of Europe to reestablish the sovereignty of Spain in the
Republics of South and Central America?
I was just going to comment upon that, and I am going
to take but a few moments to do so because I realize the pressure of other matters. This
Holy Alliance, having put a Bourbon prince
upon the throne of France by
force, then used France to suppress the constitution of Spain immediately
afterwards, and by this very treaty gave her a subsidy of 20,000,000
francs annually to enable her to wage war upon the people of Spain and to
prevent their exercise of any measure of the right of self-government.
The Holy Alliance immediately did the same thing in Italy, by
sending Austrian troops to Italy, where the people there attempted to
exercise a like measure of liberal constitutional self-government ;
and it was not until the printing press, which the Holy Alliance so
stoutly opposed, taught the people of Europe the value of liberty that
finally one country after another seized a greater and greater right of
self government, until now it may be fairly said that nearly all the
nations of Europe have a very large measure of self government.
However, I wish to call the attention of the Senate and the country
to this important history in the growth of
constitutional popular self-government.
The Holy Alliance made its powers felt by the wholesale drastic
suppression of the press in Europe, by universal censorship, by killing
free speech and all ideas of popular rights, and by the complete
suppression of popular government.
The Holy Alliance having destroyed popular government in Spain and
in Italy, had well-laid plans also to destroy popular government in the
American colonies which had revolted from Spain and Portugal in Central
and South America under the influence of the successful example of the
United States. It
was because of this conspiracy against the American Republics by the European
monarchies that the great English statesman, Canning, called the
attention of our government to it, and our statesmen then, including
Thomas Jefferson, took an active part to bring about the declaration by
President Monroe in his next annual message to the Congress of the United
States that the United States should regard it as an act of hostility to
the government of the United States and an unfriendly act if this
coalition or if any power of Europe ever undertook to establish upon the
American Continent any control of any
American Republic or to acquire any territorial rights.
This is the so-called Monroe doctrine.
The threat under the secret treaty of Verona to suppress popular
governments in the American Republics is the basis of the Monroe doctrine.
This secret treaty sets forth clearly the conflict between
monarchial government and popular government and the government of the few
as against the government of the many.
It is a part, in reality, of developing popular sovereignty when we
demand for women equal rights to life, to liberty, to the possession of
property, to an equal voice in the making of the laws and the
administration of the laws.
This demand on the part of the women is made by men, and it ought
to be made by men as well as by thinking, progressive women, as it will
promote human liberty and human happiness.
I sympathize with it, and I hope that all parties will in the
national conventions give their approval to this larger measure of liberty
to the better half of the human race.