"In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic process."
-- Dwight D. Eisenhower, January 17, 1961 --
As of late October, 1995, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Luther Powell has yet to quash speculation that he will enter the race for the 1996 presidential election. Nonetheless, there has been in the mainstream press a generous amount of lauditory praise for the retired Army general and encouragement for him to step forward and throw his helmet into the ring. The latest speculation is that Gen. Powell will soon declare his intention to enter the contest for the GOP nomination and that there is a good chance theat he will be successful not only of receiving the nomination but unseating President Bill Clinton.
Yet, despite all the encouragement and acclaim being afforded Gen. Powell, there is a growing body of published information that paints an entirely different image of the man. I have come to believe that the weight of this published information would give any potential Powell supporter sufficient cause to immediately drop their affinity for the man. In fact, much of the suppressed history of Colin Powell would indicate that he could likely be a more proper candidate for indictment in violation of numerous U.S. laws and international accords on human rights.
Among the more controversial issues that will be examined in this article are: Colin Powell's links to the My Lai Massacre, the Iran-Contra Affair, the 1983 U.S. invasion of Grenada, the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama, the massacre in the gulf known as Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, his role in the Somalia failure and the latest U.S. military intervention in Haiti. We will also examine the personal side of the general which reveals some interesting elitist, aristocratic and perhaps even fascist-leaning connections.
One must wonder, if there is
substance to much of this information which has been circulated in various
media, why then is there such a sophisticated and coordinated effort by
mainstream corporate news organizations to usher the general into an almost
A good place to begin our examination of Colin Powells' little-discussed military career is looking at the role he played in the U.S. Army's initial, and botched, investigation of the My Lai Massacre. From an article which appeared in The New Republic, April 17, 1995, entitled The Legend of Colin Powell: Anatomy of an Establishment Career, comes this exerpt: "On the morning of March16, 1968, soldiers from the U.S. Army's Americal Division entered the hamset of My Lai 4 in South Vietnam. On the orders of Lt. William Calley, they tortured and murdered hundreds of helpless civilians. They raped the women and girls. It was the moral and professional nadir of the post-World War II U.S. Army. To compound the shame, the Americal's top-ranking officers covered up the crimes. Only after a conscientious young soldier named Ron Ridenhour detailed the massacre in a letter to his congressman did the Army investigate, eventually setting loose a torrent of public outrage."
The article goes on to detail how another soldeir, Specialist Fourth Class Tom Glen, also in Lt. Calley's brigade, had revealed his own part in the massacre in a November 1968 letter to Gen. Creighton Abrams, commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam. Though not specifically mentioning a massacre, Glen detailed U.S. soldiers' crimes of murder and torture of civilians and prisoners. By December 9, Glen's letter had worked its way through military channels into the hands of then-Maj. Colin Powell who was then deputy assistant chief of staff for operations, G-3, at Americal Division headquarters. The New Republic article makes it clear that Powell was not in-country at the time of the My Lai Massacre, but that his adjutant general ordered him to check the allegations out and "report within three days with a suggested reply to Glen."
In a memo dated December 13, 1968, to the adjutant general, Powell blamed Glen stating that he had not come forward earlier nor had given specifics upon which to pursue the inquiry. Powell reportedly did not ask Glen personally for more information but relied upon Glen's commander who belittled the claims and falsely pronounced Glen a "rearguard type who could not have witnessed the capture of enemy prisoners, much less their torture." Powell's report affirmed that the soldiers charges were false except, possibly, for "isolated instances." Additionally, Powell wrote: "In direct refutation of this portrayal is the fact that relations between Americal soldiers and the Vietnamese people are excellent."
A proper investigation of the charges made in Tom Glen's letter might not only have led to a legitimate inquiry into the My Lai Massacre, but others which "included a company that had gone along with Calley's on March 16, 1968, and committed a separate massacre of ninety people at My Khe, for which no one was ever punished."
The later Army investigation sparked by Ron Ridenhour's letter to his congressman would prove Maj. Powell and others involved in this coverup to be woefully inadequate in their investigation of U.S. atrocities against Vietnamese civilians and prisoners. Powell and other military officers rarely, if ever, spoke out in defense of the human rights of innocent civilians caught in the U.S.-led slaughter. They merely "took their promotions and pocketed their medals" and left any moral dilemma over their military mission for others to pontificate over. In a manner which would indicate Powell's ability to wrench credit where it was not due, Powell managed later to worm a Legin of Merit medal citation out of this affair by bringing to light extremely high casualty figures in the division's daily logs during the later Ridenhour-instigated investigation, yet this was a year after his initial botched inquriy.
Following Powell's Vietnam
Service, which included a Purple Heart medal for war wounds, he underwent
addition schooling at George Washington University and rapidly ascended
progressively higher posts in the Pentagon.
As a White House Fellow in Nixon's Office of Management and Budget, Powell came to the attention of Caspar Weinberger and Frank Carlucci. According to the New Republic article, these men "became his mentors and helped him rise to a series of top Pentagon and White House jobs, culminating in national security adviser in 1987."
Previous to that position on the National Security Council, Powell had become Senior Military Assistant to Secretary of Defense Weinberger. It was during this period that he was unwittingly drawn into the illegal scheme to transfer over 2000 advanced U.S. TOW missiles to Iran in what has now become known as the Iran-Contra Affair. In an article which was distributed on the Internet, Mark Robinowitz cites the National Security Archive, The Chronology: The Documented Day-by-Day Account of the Secret Military Assistance to Iran and the Contras (Warner Books, 1987, p. 262) and Landslide: The Unmaking of the President 1984-1988 (by Jane Mayer and Doyle McManus).
Robinowitz provides the following quotes: "General Powell had had previous discussions with [Col. Oliver] North about the program and about Israel's problems in getting replacement TOW's.
"According to [Assistant DOD Secretary Richard] Armitage and a CIA official, Powell worked with Maj. Gen. Vincent Russo, of the Defense Logistics Agency to provide the material securely and withoug any loss of funds for the Army."
Later, Casper Weinberger's role in the progress of the illegal transfers was revealed in detailed diary notes he took while in NSC meetings regarding the affair. As detailed in an article which appeared in The Nation, March, 1993, written by David Corn and entitled Military Honor? (The Iran-Contra Affair), Powell supported intial, and false, claims by Weinberger that such diary notes did not exist. Powell told members if the Iran-Contra committees, under oath, that: "The Secretary, to my knowledge, did not keep a diary. Whatever notes he kept, I don't know how he uses them or what he does with them. He does not have a diary..."
Yet an April 21, 1992, sworn deposition contradicts that testimony. Then he stated that "During the period I worked with Secretary Weinberger at the [DOD], I observed on his desk a small pad of white paper...I viewed it as his personal diary...Knowing Secretary Weinberger as I did and knowing the routine way he would jot down notes on these pads...I considered them a private diary."
An impending trial of Casper
Weinberger over perjured testimony regarding his knowledge of the Iran-Contra
Affair was headed off when an exiting President George Bush pardoned Weinberger
and five other Iran-Contra figures. This effectively allowed Powell, who would
have been drug down in Weinberger's wake, off the hook for his role in the
illegal arms-weapons-drugs- financing scheme. Yet this would not be Powell's
only connections to such scandalous illegal operations.
Among the more frightening aspects of Gen. Colin Luther Powell, the military leader, is the cold and calculated manner by which he has deployed U.S. military forces against various populations of black and brown in weak developing nations. While we need to acknowledge that as military officer, Powell was obligated to follow the orders of his commanders, it must also be taken into account that violations of international law and human rights accords are specifically forbidden under the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
It will be necessary to make brief examinations of five major commitments of U.S. forces for which Gen. Powell should have been expected to have played a significant role. These include Grenada, Panama, Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia and Haiti.
GRENADA -- On October 25, 1983, U.S. forces aboard the assault vessel USS Guam, staged a massive assault on the tiny Caribbean nation of Grenada obstensively to forestall a possible massacre of U.S. citizens attending a small medical school on the island. This followed by two weeks a counter-revolutionary coup against the beloved Socialist leader Maurice Bishop by a rogue faction which had been aligned with Bishop's New Jewell Movement and their People's Revolutionary Government. When the truth finally emerged, the danger to U.S. citizens had been fabricated as had been the counter-revolutionary coup. In actuality the entire invasion was a result of Ronald Reagan's anti-communist "cowboy" mentality and an extension of the centuries-old Monroe Doctrine by which the U.S. sought to dominate the Western Hemisphere. As senior military assistant to Defense Sec. Casper Weinberger, Powell undoubtedly had the inside track to all the false allegations against the New Jewell Movement and their vision of Grenada. In addition he certainly would've been appraised of all military strategies against this Caribbean nation, 85% of whose population is of African descent. When all was said and done, the role of the CIA in fomenting the upheaval which led to the U.S. invasion was apparent and ten years after the military operation conditions by which the average Grenadan lived had worsened.
PANAMA -- On December 10, 1989, President George Bush ordered U.S. forces to invade the tiny Central American nation of Panama in an attack widely condemned around the globe, Operation Just Cause. Powell's role as top military leader for all U.S. forces as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff, cannot be underplayed.
As Mark Robinowitz wrote in Questions the Mass Media Won't Ask Colin Powell, "Portrayed as a 'surgical strike' on Manuel noriega, it did virtually nothing to stem the flow of drugs into the US (Noriega's replacements installed by the US Southern Command were also linked to the profitable drug trade.)"
He goes on to cite an investigation conducted by the Central American Human Rights commission (CODEHUCA) which included the following conclusions: 1) The U.S. Army used highly sophisticated and experimental weapons against unarmed civilian populations; 2) Civilian casualties were much higher than the official U.S. figure of 220. (Some estimates of the number of non- combatants killed run from as few as 2200 to as high as 4000.) Many of the mostly-Black victims were residents of the El Chorrillos slum which was next to the Panamanian military headquarters and was razed to the ground in the attack; 3) U.S. efforts to obscure the actual death toll included massive incineration of corpses prior to identification, burial in mass graves [which are still being discovered] prior to identification, and U.S. military control of administrative offices of hospitals and morgues; and 4) "A thorough, well-planned propaganda campaign has been implemented by U.S. authorities to... deny the brutality and extensive human and material costs of the invasion."
Despite the "surgical strike" to remove the Panamanian president, most of the victims of the invasion were poor Black, mestizo and Indian populations. Today the drug cartels operate with greater freedom within the Panamanian government.
DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM -- Coinciding with the celebration of the anniversary of the birth of Nobel Peace Prize winner Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on January 16, 1991, upon orders of George Bush, a coalition led by U.S. forces slammed into the gulf in a brutal one-sided assault which had not been witnessed in decades. Again, Powell, as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was responsible for the overall operation of Western forces in the conflict.
All told, casualty estimates of the number of people killed in operations Desert Shield (the air war) and Desert Storm (the ground operation) run as high as a quarter of a million. Again citing Robinowitz's article, "John Lehman, Reagan's first Navy Secretary, reportedly confided in 1991 at a gathering at the 'Bohemian Grove' (an all-male retreat for corporate and political leaders in northern California [the infamous 'Owl' Ceremonies] that 200,000 people were killed in the Gulf War.
"US forces bulldozed Iraqi draftees into mass fraves, bombed retreating forces on the 'Highway of Death', set oil refineries on fire (not all oil spills were caused by Saddam Hussein0, dropped uranium tipped shells across the desert (over 40 tons of radioactive uranium was scattered), and threatened to use nuclear weapons before the conflict started. But since strict Pentagon censorship prohibited virtually any photographic documentation of the slaughter, Americans who only watched TV never learned what happened in the desert."
In addition, my own research has detailed the use of experimental drugs on U.S. soldiers as well as the likely deployment of highly sophisticated bio-chemical warfare agents which have resulted in the diagnosis of over 30,000 GI's and countless tens of thousands of other U.S. citizens with the misunderstood Gulf War Syndrome. The suspected causative agent mycoplasma incognitus was reportedly developed by Department of Defense research Shyh-Ching Lo. According to microbiology researchers Garth and Nancy Nicholson of the University of Texas Anderson Cancer Research Laboratory, the use of this deadly bio-chemical warfare agent was deliberate, widespread, has infected untold numbers in Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Britain, Canada and the U.S., and the truth of this still being covered up by the U.S government.
SOMALIA -- America was rudely awakened as to the reality of it's brutal Somali operation on October 3, 1993, when a raid by U.S. special operations forces looking for Somali clan leader Muhammed Farah Aidid, turned into disaster. At the end of the long street battle, some 18 GI's had been killed, dozens others wounded and the myth of superpower invincibility had been shattered by a fourth-rate militia in a nation too poor to possess a government. To further add to the humiliation, Somalis, enraged by the destructive forces which had occupied their nation as well as killed an estimated 700 Somali men, women and children in the aforementioned battle, drug the corpses of U.S. forces through the streets and danced upon the remains of the destroyed unit.
An Associated Press wire story which appeared October 1, 1995, gives an account over scathing criticism over Gen. Powell's role in the decisions which left the U.S. forces vulnerable in their failed mission to Somalia. Specifically cited was "a decision by Powell's staff -- one that Powell says he does not recall making -- against sending AC-130 gunships along with Task Force Ranger, a force of 460 Army troops assigned to capture...Aidid."
In defense of Powell, the report cites top generals involved in the operation that "the AC-130s probably would not have changed the raid's outcome. But they make clear that political pressure drove the decision against sending them." Their main gripe was that Powell, along with Defense Secretary Les Aspin, violated military principles that say "you fight as you train." Powell has stated that there were many aspects of the mission to Somalia which he opposed which included sending the Task Force Ranger on a mission to capture Aidid and that the AC-130 was not designed to be used in dense urban populations. Nonetheless, I have seen other films of U.S. helicopters firing high-velocity machine guns and rockets into crowds in the Somali capital of Mogadishu. Again, the Somali casualties of that day were reportedly 700. Descriptions of the battle from the perspective of the U.S. soldiers on the ground do not take into account how so many Somali men, women and children could have been killed in the battle. Many would thus suggest another heartless massacre of defenseless Third World citizens by the U.S. military forces. For his efforts in Operation Bread Basket Gen. Powell received the U.N.'s Global Leadership Award for humanitarian work in Somalia.
HAITI -- As Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Powell's final official military excursion was the occupation of Haiti by U.S. forces to oust the Haitian military junta and restore the exiled Jean Bertrand Aristide to the presidency. It has been widely stated of the role that Powell played in convincing the junta to step aside. Yet, Alexander Cockburn wrote in a fine article which appeared in The Nation, October 10, 1994, entitled Saving Haiti, the real mission of the U.S. government was the restoration of "the same elites, the bourgeoisie and the five families that run the country." In addition, he cites World Bank objectives, among others, to "secure the voluntary departure of about half the 45,000 civil servants", the privatization of public services, abolish import restrictions and tariffs, and "special courts created to ease life for international investors."
Among the more notorious of those international investors is David Rockefeller, who appears to be bent upon managing Haiti as another of his numerous fiefdoms from which raw resources, cheap labor and interest on U.S. government, World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) loans can be implemented.
While it could be argued that
Powell's role in this international financial scheme would be tenuous at best,
it is no secret that the United States has long played a significant covert role
in the destabilization of Haiti, evidenced by the CIA's role in setting up FRAPH,
a right-wing group linked to much of Haiti's death squad activity since the
demise of the U.S.-sponsored Duvaliar dictatorships (Popa Doc and Baby Doc
Duvalier). As such no one who would play a significant role in U.S. military
occupation of Haiti can escape the long legacy of American intervention in the
affairs of the nation, whether it be Clinton who presided over the invasion, or
Powell and ex-president Jimmy Carter, both of whom played significant roles in
the behind-the-scenes negotiations which allowed foreign forces onto the island
with minimal resistance.
Questions about Colin Powell's real objectives become more critical when one begins to analyze those who have been drawn into his inner circle of political confidants.
We had previously mentioned Casper Weinberger and Frank C. Carlucci, both former Secretaries of Defense and influential in Powell's political development. Also included in this "canteen cabinet", as revealed in an impressive October 7, 1995, Los Angeles Times article written by John M. Broder entitled Powell's Intimates Urge Against White House Run. The lengthy article, to which I will frequently refer, also mentions Powell associates J. Bruce Llewellyn , Richard L. Armitage, Kenneth M. Duberstein, Vernon E. Jordan, Jr., David Hale, Richard Lamm, George Bush, Dick Cheney, Marybel Batjer, Col. Bill Smullen and Ronald Lauder.
While details on these individuals would certainly fill volumes of biographies, certain highlights (low-lights?) on these individuals can be pointed out as reported by a wide variety of published sources:
J. Bruce Llewellyn -- Like Colin Powell, J. Bruce Llewellyn is the son of immigran Jamaicans and born in New York City. Also like his more famous cousin, Llewellyn attended City College of New York, an education for which he helped finance by running a liquor store. Today, J. Bruce is among the wealthiest African-Americans and his extensive holdings are impressive. They include a lucrative Coca Cola bottling plant in Philadelphia, a cable and broadcasting corporation, Queen City Broadcasting Inc., and Essence magazine. He has as well occupied such diverse positions as an appointment by President Carter to the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, another presidential appointment by Clinton to a five-member board to assist U.S. corporations doing business in Russia, the Fund for Large Enterprises which received a $100 million government grant, and stints as head or board member of Fedco Food Stores, New York City Housing & Development Corporation, Small Business Administration regional director, New York County District Attorney's Office, and other political and private appointments. The numerous organizations of which he is a member include Harlem Lawyers Association, president of 100 Black Men Inc., Chairman of Freedom National Bank, and nearly a dozen other prominent East Coast organizations. He has additionally received honorary doctorates from Wagner College (Stanten Island, NY), City University of New York, and Atlanta University. His sister, Barbara Cropper, is a New York state judge and his daughter, Alexandra, a television reporter in Buffalo.
Richard L. Armitage -- Former senior Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs and Special U.S. Envoy to the Phillipines and the Middle East in the Reagan and Bush administrations. A long-time confidant of George Bush, Richard Armitage not only is a close friend of Colin Powell (Powell refers to him in his best-seller My American Journey as "my brother and my bodyguard") but a political advisor said to be in daily contact. Broder's L.A. Times article states that "Some of Powell's advice comes from others through Armitage, thus insulating Powell from directly consulting people who might then be identified as his 'advisors'." Yet if one makes an examination of what has been published about Richard Armitage, association with these "advisors" is the last thing that a presidential candidate would want. Broder writes, "Armitage has also been accused by a leftist group in Washington called the Christic Institute of being a player in a global conspiracy theory involving drug-running, hit squads and CIA dirty tricks. A federal judge found the charges to be baseless." Former Green Berets Special Operations Col. James 'Bo' Gritz names Armitage in his 1991 book Called To Serve, as well as a widely distributed video, as being a key U.S. contact of 'Golden Triangle' opium warlord and clan leader General Khun Sa in the international narcotics trade. Gritz wrote, "If Richard Armitage was, as Khun Sa avowed, a major participant in parallel government drug trafficking, then it explained why our efforts to rescue POWs had been inexplicably foiled, time after time...If it was true, Richard Armitage would be the last man in the world who would desire to see prisoners of war come home alive." While Gritz himself has a credibility problem with those familiar with his background, his accounts of Special Operations experiences in Southeast Asia is compelling and bears close examination. It has been further reported that U.S. embassy workers in Bangkok accused Armitage of arms trafficking and drug smuggling. His appointment was reportedly terminated by then-U.S. Ambassador to Thailand, Morton Abramowitz. These accusations have been further corroborated by "fierce attacks" from industrial tycoon and political advocate Ross Perot. Khun Sa, leader of the Mong Tai clan, has since been demoted as the region's chief heroin warlord and replaced by Chao Nyi Lai's United Wa State Army through a set of feudal intrigues that has the history of Myanmar (Burma) a virtual epic of warlord conquests. Meanwhile U.S. heroin imports from the region have increased from 20% to 70% of the domestic supply. It's not difficult to imagine the impact of this narcotic on the streets of a city such as Harlem where Colin Luther Powell was born on April 5, 1937.
Kenneth M. Duberstein -- Republican gun-for-hire and former White House Chief of Staff for Ronald Reagan, serving at the time that Powell was National Security Advisor, in the waning days of Reagan's administration. Today Duberstein runs a Washington political consulting firm which bears his name. He is reported to have spoken at length with Powell before his recent interview with Barbara Walters for ABC-TV and provided Powell with responses to inquiries about such touchy subjects as abortion, school prayer, gun control and affirmative action, according to Broder's L.A. Times article. Duberstein has also been instrumental in steering Powell into pursuing the GOP nomination as opposed to a futile attempt to run as independent.
Vernon E. Jordan, Jr. -- Among the most influential Blacks in America's elitist history, Vernon Eulion Jordan, Jr., has an extensive history that includes business, government, social and insider circles. He holds over 50 honorary doctorates including such universities as Depauw, Howard, Boston College, Brandeis, Duke, NYU, Princeton, Tulane, Rutgers, Tuskegee Institute, Yale, Notre Dame, Harvard, etc. He has been a practicing lawyer as well as associated with some of the most prestigious and elitist organizations in the world including: the Bilderberg Group, the Trilateral Commission, Council on Foreign Relations, Joint Center for Political Studies, Brookings Institution, Ford Foundation, Urban Institute, National Urban League, United Negro College Fund, NAACP, Taconic Foundation, Harvard Institute of Politics, United Way, American Express, Bankers Trust, Corning, Dow Jones, Union Carbide, J.C. Penney, Xerox, Revlon, R.J.R. Nabisco, Sara Lee, the Clinton Presidential Transition Board, Points of Light Initiative, National Committee on Selective Service, and literally dozens of other powerful affiliations and appointments including the elite Black fraternity Sigma Pi Phi, the Boule. Clearly this is a powerful and influential individual and his close relationship to Colin Powell is undoubtedly significant. Jordan has vowed to support his friend in whatever endeavor he pursues and that would naturally include a bid for political office. With all these connections, one would wonder why Powell isn't the one encouraging his friend Vernon towards a bid for the White House.
David Hale -- Chief economist at Kemper Financial Services in Chicago, Hale has become advisor to Powell through his association with Richard Armitage. Broder, in his revealing October 7, L.A. Times article, notes that "Powell has been impressed and influenced by Hale's narrowly circulated economic analyses" [emphasis added]. In addition he characterizes Hale as "internationalist and free-trade oriented." This would jive with perceptions that Powell is susceptible to manipulation by the same forces which have brought forth such internationalist, corporate- dominated agenda items as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Trade and Tarriffs (GATT) and other New World Order Globalist priorities.
Richard Lamm -- Former governor of Colorado, Lamm had challenged Clinton for the 1992 presidential nomination. Currently a professor at the University of Denver, Lamm is reported to be an expert on health care. This would provide Powell The Candidate with some semblance of a domestic agenda which would include moderate social policies as well as an appearance of bi- partisan appeal.
George Bush -- The former Director of Central Intelligence (CIA) turned president, is undoubtedly one of the most connected individuals to the real reins of power in the world. It was Bush who elevated Gen. Powell to the position of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Department of Defense in 1989 from his position as Commander in Chief, Forces Command, Atlanta, GA. It was as Bush's top military commander that Powell earned his reputation as architect of military campaigns against Panama, Iraq, Somalia and a final operation to interrupt an invasion of the U.S. by Haitian boat people. Bush's career has been tainted by reported links to international drug smuggling (note the intimate link to Richard Armitage), CIA-sponsored assassinations, the advancement of a globalist conspiracy termed the New World Order, global manipulation by oil cartels, as well as the nefarious activities of his sons Jeb and George, Jr. In addition Bush's participation in secret councils such as Yale's Skull & Bones society and elitist organizations such as the Trilateral Commission and the Bildeberg Group. Powell is reported to show a good deal of affection for Bush as well as Reagan and Weinberger.
Frank C. Carlucci III -- A former assistant director of the CIA under Jimmy Carter and Secretary of Defense and National Security Adviser to Ronald Reagan. Powell has frequently referred to Carlucci as his "mentor" and as such an understanding of Carlucci's covert career is revealing. In a landmark book written by Karl Evanzz, The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X, Carlucci's appointment as appointed consul and second-secretary of the U.S. Embassy in Stanleyville, The Congo (now Zaire), was a cover for the CIA and that Carlucci's presence in the capital was intimately connected with a CIA-sponsored plot to assassinate recently-elected president Patrice Lumumba in 1961. While en route to the home of one of Lumumba's chief enemies Moise Tshombe, Carlucci was in a motorcade which was involved in an accident which killed a Congolese pedestrian. In the ensuing altercation, Carlucci was stabbed in the back of his neck and on his left shoulder. Five months after the assassination of Patrice Lumumba Carlucci was arrested and expelled from the Congo and sent back to the U.S. In 1965 he was expelled from another African country, this time Tanzania, after being implicated in the CIA-linked assassination of Burundi Prime Minister Pierre Ngendandumwe whose government was then lending support to anti-Tshombe forces in the Congo. Of a telephone conversation which was intercepted by the KGB, between Carlucci and Robert Gordon, U.S. consul in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Evanzz writes, "one of the men was heard telling the other that he hoped the State Department was convinced of the need to send 'good wishes' to Zanzibar. 'We have enough ammunition,' one of them said." With a mentor who has demonstrated such utter contempt for international law and African sovereignty, one might expect Powell to be a severe detriment to African efforts to resist the resurgent Western effort towards re- colonization. Carlucci is currently head of his own investment banking house and is reported to have offered a position to his protégé.
Dick Cheney -- As Secretary of Defense under George Bush from 1989 to 1993, Richard Bruce Cheney was directly involved in the Panama, Gulf War and Somali operations. While Powell is said to "respect Cheney's intellect" Brodin reports that they are not particularly close.
Ronald Lauder -- Son of Estee
Lauder, cosmetics mogul and the second richest woman in America, Ronald Lauder
is a former Department of Defense official and U.S. Ambassador to Austria during
the 1980s. What is significant about the latter appointment is that this
coincides with the Austrian presidency of Kurt Waldheim. Waldheim, also former
Secretary-General of the United Nations, was drawn into international
controversy when it was revealed that his past included service as a Nazi
officer in the Balkans during the second world war, where he participated in
German atrocities. This controversy eventually even engulfed current Pope John
Paul II who, in 1994, bestowed on the besmirched Mr. Waldheim the papal honor of
Knight of the Ordine Piano. Powell is reported to be a regular guest at the
Lauder's weekend estate on long Island and his friend has pledged to raise
millions of dollars for Powell in the event of a presidential run. Lauder
intends to tap his vast Wall Street and corporate connections for necessary
AN AMERICAN TALE: COLIN POWELL IS ONLY ONE CHAPTER IN A REMARKABLE IMMIGRANT STORY by Steven V. Roberts, U.S. News & World Report, August 21, 1995
BORING DETAILS (IRAN CONTRA CASE COVER-UPS) by Robert Parry, Mother Jones, July-August 1993
BOSNIA BETRAYED (UNITED STATES POLICY ON INTERVENTION) by June Jordan, The Progressive, September 1993
CALLED TO SERVE by James 'Bo' Gritz, 1991, Lazarus Publishing Company
COLIN POWELL JUST ONE MORE WARLORD: LIKE GENERAL SCHWARZKOPF BEFORE HIM, THIS MAN KNOWS ART OF SELF-LIONIZATION by Colman McCarthy, National Catholic Reporter, October 15. 1993
DIRTY WORK 2: THE CIA IN AFRICA by Ellen Ray, William Schaap, Karl Van Meter & Louis Wolf, 1979, Lyle Stuart Inc.
EYES ON ACCORD, JEWS SHRUG OFF POPE'S AFFRONT (KURT WALDHEIM GIVEN PAPAL KNIGHTHOOD) by Tom Roberts, National Catholic Reporter, July 29, 1994
GOLDWATER: POWELL A SHOO-IN, Associated Press, October 12, 1995
GOP BID WON'T BE EASY FOR POWELL, EXPERTS SAY by Ronald Brownstein, L.A. Times, October 16, 1995
HALDEMAN DIARIES REVEAL NIXON FED UP WITH BLACKS DURING HIS WHITE HOUSE TENURE, Jet Magazine, June 13, 1994
LANDSLIDE: THE UNMAKING OF THE PRESIDENT 1984-1988, by Jane Mayer and Doyle McManus
LLEWELLYN TO SPUR U.S. BUSINESS IN RUSSIA, Jet Magazine, April 4, 1994
MARQUIS WHO'S WHO IN AMERICAN GOVERNMENT 1995
MILITARY HONOR? (IRAN CONTRA AFFAIR) by David Corn, The Nation, March 8, 1993
NIXON'S LEGACY TO BLACKS EXAMINED AFTER HIS DEATH AT AGE 81, Jet Magazine, May 9, 1994
POWELL CITES MIXED FEELINGS ABOUT WASHINGTON RALLY, Reuter News Service, October 16, 1995
POWELL'S INTIMATES URGE AGAINST RUN FOR WHITE HOUSE, L.A. Times, October 7, 1995
POWELL SEES U.S. RACIAL CHASM, Associated Press, October 9, 1995
PRESIDENTIAL EUGENICS...GUESS WHO'S GOT ROYAL GENES? Reuter News Service, London, England, October 16, 1995
PROMISES BROKEN, ILLUSIONS LOST: PANAMA DIARY by Barbara Jamison, The Nation, March 15, 1993
QUESTIONS THE MEDIA WON'T ASK COLIN POWELL, by Mark Robinowitz, posted on Internet, October 1995
REPORT RIPS POWELL ON SOMALIA, Associated Press, October 1, 1995
SAVING HAITI (BEAT THE DEVIL COLUMN) by Alexander Cockburn, The Nation, October 10, 1995
SPEAK UP, GENERAL, THE FLOOR IS YOURS by Daniel Schnur, L.A. Times, October 16, 1995
SYMBOLIC POLITICS (KURT WALDHEIM, RADOVAN KARADZIC, THE CRIME BILL, AND CLINTON APPOINTEES) by Martin Peretz, The New Republic, September 5, 1994
THE CHRONOLOGY: THE DOCUMENTED DAY-BY-DAY ACCOUNT OF THE SECRET MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO IRAN AND CONTRAS, The National Security Archive, Warner Books, 1987
THE DEMOBILIZATION OF COLIN POWELL by Claudia Glenn Dowling and David Hume Kennerly, Life Magazine, July 1993
THE GOLDEN TRIANGLE'S NEW KING: DRUGS, The Economist February 4, 1995
THE JUDAS FACTOR: THE PLOT TO KILL MALCOLM X by Karl Evanzz, 1992, Thunder's Mouth Press
THE LEGEND OF COLIN POWELL: ANATOMY OF AN ESTABLISHMENT CARREER , The New Republic, April 17, 1995
THE RICHEST WOMEN IN AMERICA by Jeff Bloch, Ladies Home Hournal, August 1992
THE UNTOUCHABLE (COLIN POWELL) by David Corn, The Nation, October 4, 1993
WHO'S WHO IN AMERICAN POLITICS 1993-94
WHO'S WHO AMONG BLACK AMERICANS 1994-95
YOU MUST REMEMBER THIS (COLIN POWELL NEVER TOOK NOTES, BUT RECEIVES $6 MILLION CONTRACT TO PUBLISH HIS MEMOIRS), Time Magazine, August 30, 1993